Black Bear Facts (NYDEC)
Reducing Human-Bear Conflicts
Living with Bears (NYSDEC brochure)
If You Encounter A Bear
New York State Black Bear Response Manual -This is a very comprehensive 125 page NYS DEC manual describing an extensive number of situations which would involve a bear’s interaction with wildlife, garbage or people.
Birds, mammals and reptiles (Vertebrate pests of Homes, Structures, People and Pets)
U. of California Integrated Pest Management Program
NY DEC Issues Guidance to Avoid Conflicts with Coyotes (April 2016)
U. of California Agriculture & Natural Resources - Identification and biology, recognizing problem coyote behavior, identifying coyote damage, habitat management in suburban areas, landscape plants having fruits or seed often preferred by coyotes
Wildlife Damage Management Fact Sheet White-Tailed Deer (Cornell Cooperative Extension)
Insect Repellents and Pesticides
Best Insect Repellent for Kids (Consumersearch.com)
According to the EPA, oil of lemon eucalyptus is "practically non-toxic" if swallowed or applied to the skin, but it's "very highly or highly toxic" to the eyes and can even cause temporary eye injury. This is probably one reason why the Food and Drug Administration hasn't approved products with lemon eucalyptus oil for use in children under three years old.
Preventing tick bites while this CDC site only recommends 20-30% DEET, see Consumer Reports 2016 articles which tested many others types of insecticides for comparable lengths of time effectiveness
Consumer Reports Insect Repellent Guide May 2016
This guide rates 16 insect repellents based on their effectiveness (length of time). repelling two species of mosquitoes, the Aedes mosquitoes (the aggressive mosquitoes that tend to bite during the day and that can spread Zika) as well as against Culex mosquitoes (night-time biters that can spread West Nile) and deer ticks (which can transmit Lyme and other diseases). Reported in the April 2016 Consumer Report Magazine, ratings were based on test results of 16 insecticides of different types (containing deet, picaridin, organic or botanical oils) with varying concentrations and varying means of delivery (aerosol and pump spray) Their six recommended insecticides are listed here. Sawyer Fisherman’s formula Picaridin20% pump spray, Ben’s 30% Deet Tick and Insect Wilderness formula aerosol, Repel Lemon Eucalyptus 30%, pump spray, Repel Scented Family 15% DEET aerosol, Natrapel 20% Picaridin aerosol, Off Deepwoods VII 25% DEET aerosol.
Does ‘Natural’ Insect Repellent Work?
Pest Identification Guides and Tools (National Pest Information Center)
Citizen’s Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety (EPA 2005)
50 page booklet covering both outdoor and indoor pests, use of non-chemical and chemical pest controls, safe use, storage, disposal of pesticides and first aid for pesticide poisoning: National Pesticide Information Center 1-800-858-7378
Insect Diagnostic Lab Factsheets Cornell U.
Mammals of NY state
"Tickspotters , a Tick Survey" Webinar May 2015 with Dr. Mather (Director of the U. of Rhode Island TickEncounter Resource Center) and other scientists with more scientifically oriented presentations totaling 1 hour. However, his 20 minute presentation, is very informative, and an excellent introduction to tick literacy: the importance of daily checking for ticks during their active months, what to do when you find a tick and their easy and free tick identification program (to verify what type and stage of tick it is, how long it has fed, and relative risk of infection) Further communications about Ticks can be found at Facebook Tick Encounter Resource page as well as the very comprehensive Tick Encounter Resource center below.
University of Rhode Island TickEncounter Resource Center - This is an outstanding resource providing comprehensive information on tick testing (where and how to send for tests), tick identification (interactive tick charts for different parts of the U.S.) , tick repellents for clothes, targeting tick habitats at home, and best practice tick removal. There are interactive (requiring Adobe Flash) as well as non-flash tick identification charts. The interactive listing is more comprehensive showing types of ticks present in a selected region of the U.S. as well as identifying stages of tick with potential to transmit diseases. The Middle Atlantic Region (New York) shows 4 types of ticks (2 shown below) in their various stages: (for easy reference to comparative sizes of unfed deer ticks you can think of larval -a period dot, nymph- a poppy seed adult- a sesame seed.
Larval, nymph, adult male, adult female, partially fed, fully fed
With the interactive tick identification charts, if you left click a specific tick and stage, a magnified image appears as well as information on seasonal prevalence and whether this stage of tick should be tested since it has potential to transmit disease(s). (this left click option requires a mouse) note: using left clicks on the deer tick stages will indicate that the larval and adult male do not transmit diseases.
The tick growth comparison link may be used to estimate how long a tick has been attached(fed) by comparing changes in appearance. If a tick has been attached 24 hours or less it is less likely to have transmitted disease.
What to do when you find an attached tick: Use recommended method for removing tick, determine the type of tick, and estimate the stage of tick then save tick with specification of date and location of tick bite in small Ziploc bag. You may also use the FREE Tickspotters website for the identification of the type and stage of tick. After submitting your tick picture along with the completed Tickspotter form the results and recommendation whether testing the tick for pathogens is necessary will be received after 1-3 business days. What is the risk of infection? Tests for relevant pathogens are done at the U. of Massachusetts Medical Zoology Laboratory with results in 3-5 business days.
Get Tick Smart: 10 things to know, 5 things to do Dr. Mather Webinar (45 min) (use sliding indicator at bottom of page to start presentation at 2:00 minutes) This webinar demonstrates why it is so difficult to avoid and identify ticks, the importance of daily tick checks and the use of insect repellents and insecticides like permethrin (repels and kills ticks and mosquitoes) on shoes and clothes.
Tick Management Handbook
K. Stafford, Ph.D. (Ct. Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven) 76 page very informative and comprehensive guide about tick types and diseases, tick bite avoidance; for homeowners, pest control operators and public health officials for the prevention of tick associated disease.
Be Tick Free: A Guide for Preventing Lyme Disease - NYS Department of Health
Consumer Reports Insect Repellents Guide 2016
This guide rates 16 insect repellents based on their effectiveness (length of time) repelling two species of mosquitoes, the Aedes mosquitoes (the aggressive mosquitoes that tend to bite during the day and that can spread Zika) as well as against Culex mosquitoes (night-time biters that can spread West Nile) and deer ticks (which can transmit Lyme and other diseases). Reported in the April 2016 Consumer Report Magazine, ratings were based on test results of 16 insecticides of different types (containing deet, picaridin, organic or botanical oils) with varying concentrations and varying means of delivery (aerosol and pump spray). Their six recommended insecticides are listed here.
Does ‘Natural’ Insect Repellent Work?
Consumer Reports Magazine July 2016 only 1 of 6 “natural” plant based repellents Repel Lemon Eucalyptus (87 rating) was effective for 7 hours while others no longer than 1 hour. However, others containing 20% picardin (a synthetic compound resembling a chemical in the black pepper plant) Sawyer Fisherman’s formula Picardin spray pump (96 rating ) and Natrapel 8 hour aerosol (81 rating) were also highly rated.
Please also refer to other Insect Repellents and Pesticides links under this Wildlife section.
Species of Amphibians,Reptiles and Breeding Birds observed in North Castle, Appendix C (pages 32-34), North Castle Biodiversity Plan 2004